Donec orci eros, tristique sit amet odio vitae, auctor pharetra nisi. Mauris ornare euismod lorem et fringilla. In nec bibendum enim, id lobortis enim. Sed ac faucibus lectus, vitae imperdiet elit.

Absolute temperature directly from plank’s profile: A simulation

B-111, Saivihar, Sector-15, CBD-Belapur, NaviMumbai-400614 (India)


The measured thermal radiation from a material surface will, in general, have a wave length (\lambda) dependent scale-factor to the Planck profile (PT) from the contributions of the emissivity (Є\lambda) of the surface, the response function (A\lambda) of the measurement setup, and the emission via non-Plank processes. For obtaining the absolute temperature from such a profile, a procedure that take care of these dependencies and which relay on a temperature grid searchis proposed. In the procedure, the deviation between the Plank profiles at various temperatures and the measured spectrum that is made equal to it at a selected wavelength, by scaling, is used. The response function (A\lambda) is eliminated at the measurement stage and the polynomial dependence of the remnant scale factor mostly dominated by Є\lambda) i s extracted from the measured spectrum by identifying its optimal \lambda dependence. It is shown that when such a computation is carried out over a temperature grid, the absolute temperature can be identified from the minimum of the above deviation. Here, search for T and Є\lambda) d elinked, unlike in the leastsquare approaches that are normally employed. Code that implements the procedure is tested with simulated Planck profile to which different viable values of Є\lambda) a nd noise is incorporated. It shown that if the \lambda dependence of scale-factor is not too high, the absolute temperature can be recovered. A large \lambda dependent scale-factor and the consequent possible error in the temperature obtained can also be identified.

KEYWORDS: Planck profile, Absolute Temperature scale, Temperature measurement

Thermo-Fluid Mechanics of gas-Solid Particle Flows over horizontal Flat Plate

Department of Mathematics, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana-500007-India
Department of Mathematics, Osmania University, Hyderabad,Telangana-500007-India


Mathematical model has been developed to protect fluid and solid particle homogeneous mixture velocity concentration and temperature for a heated horizontal flat plate. Conversation equation based on Eulerian scale are approximated for small relaxation times through stream function and similarity transformations. Parametric database generated through computer program for arbitrary constants on comparison with clear fluid reveals the particle concentration has pronounced effect on velocity and temperature profiles.

KEYWORDS: Fluid Mechanics, Boundary layer equations, ordinary differential equation, AMS Subject Classification: 35Q35 37N10, 76A04, 78M15

Disjoint total Restrained Dominating sets in Graphs

Department of Mathematics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga – 585 106 (India)
Department of Mathematics, Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi Campus Bangalore -560 056 (India)
Department of Mathematics, Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi Campus Bangalore -560 056 (India)


The disjoint total restrained domination number of a graph G is the minimum cardinality of the union of two disjoint total restrained dominating sets in G. We also consider an invariant the minimum cardinality of the disjoint union of a restrained dominating set and a total restrained dominating set. In this paper, we initiate a study of these parameters and establish some results on these new parameters.

KEYWORDS: Inverse domination set, restrained dominating set, total restrained dominating set

A Mixed Quadrature Rule using Clenshaw-Curtis five point Rule Modified by Richardson Extrapolation

Head of Department of Mathematics B.S. Degree College, Nuahat, Jajpur-754296,Odisha (India)
Visiting Faculty, Department of Mathematics, Ravenshaw University, Cuttack, Odisha (India)


A mixed quadrature rule of precision nine for approximate evaluation of real definite integrals has been constructed by blending Clenshaw-Curtis five point rule modified by Richardson Extrapolation and GaussLegendre four point rule. An error analysis for this mixed rule is provided. The efficiency of this rule is highlighted through numerical evaluation of some definite integrals at the end.

KEYWORDS: Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature rule, Gauss-Legendre 4-point rule, Richardson Extrapolation, Subject classification: 65D32

Existence of Smooth Epimorphism from Fuchsian Group to the Group of Automorphisms of compact Riemann surface to the point group of Carbon Tetrachloride

Department of Mathematics, DCB Girlsu2019 College, Jorhat-ASSAM (India)
Department of Mathematics, Jorhat Institute of Science & Technology, Jorhat-ASSAM


A finite group G acts as a group of automorphisms on a compact Riemann surface S of genus g if and only if there exist a Fuchsian group \Gamma and an epimorphism \phi:\Gamma\rightarrowG such that ker\phi = K is a surface group of genus g. And then \phi is named as smooth homomorphism. The objective of this paper is to establish a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of smooth epimorphism from a Fuchsian group \Gamma to the finite group of symmetries of Carbon Tetra chloride molecule, whose abstract group representation is <a,b|a4= b3=(ab)2 >.

KEYWORDS: smooth epimorphism, point group, compact Riemann surface, AMS Subject Classification 2020: 20B25, 20B30, 20H10, 30F10

Bismuth Tellurite Glasses : UpConversion Luminescence Properties: A Review

Department of Physics, Madhyanchal Professional University, Bhopal (India)
Department of Physics, Madhyanchal Professional University, Bhopal (India)
Department of Physics, Madhyanchal Professional University, Bhopal (India)


Tellurite glasses are promising upconversion optical and laser materials. The upconversion efficiency is strongly influenced by maximum phonon energy of the host, tellurite glasses have lower phonon energy than many common oxide glasses. The characteristic glass transition temperature Tg and crystallization onset Tx, differential scaning calorimetry (DSC) is studied. Glassy structure is verified by XRD. Study of visible absorption spectra and upconversion spectra of rare earth ion doped Bismuth tellurite glasses designate it as futuristic photonic material.

KEYWORDS: Bismuth tellurite glasses, RE Rare earth ions, UC Upconversion

A study on Strongly U-Flat Modules over Matlis Domains

Department of Education in Science and Mathematics, Regional Institute of Education, NCERT, Bhopal (M. P.), (India)
Department of Education in Science and Mathematics, Regional Institute of Education, NCERT, Bhopal (M. P.), (India)
Professor, Department of Mathematics, RKDF University, Bhopal (M. P.), (India)


In the article, R be a ring with local units that have discussed. For any ME mod-R, the map \mu(M1+M2):

(M1+M2)\rightarrow(M1+M2) given by Σn i-1/j=1 (Mi + Mj) =1 ⨂ri Σn i-1/j=1 \rightarrow(Mi + Mj) ⨂r be an isomorphism of right R-modules. Strongly U-Flat Modules over Matlis Domains has defined and discussed with their properties to know the relations.

KEYWORDS: U-flat modules, Matlis domains, Prufer domain

In thbe article, R be a ring with local units that have discussed. For any ME mod-R, the map (M1+M2): (M1+M2)(M1+M2) given by Σn i-1/j=1 (Mi + Mj) =1 ⨂ri Σn i-1/j=1  (Mi +...

Analysis of Electrical Networks Graph Theoretic Approach

Associate professor, D.C.B. Girlsu2019 College, Jorhat, Assam (India)
Associate professor, Jorhat Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat, Assam (India)


Graph theory, a branch of Mathematics plays a vital rule in studying interdisciplinary subjects such as physics, Chemistry, Engineering etc. Study of the properties of electrical circuits with the help of graph theory is a growing trend in mathematical and electrical fields. Electrical circuits consists of nodes and branches which obeys Kirchhoff ’s current laws, Kirchhoff ’s voltage laws etc. There are various well known theorems such as Norton’s theorem, Thevenin’s theorem, Superposition theorem, Millman Theorem etc for network analysis. In this paper, we try to analyze Millman’s theorem with the help of Graph theorem.

KEYWORDS: Graph theory, Electrical circuits, Branch current, Loop current

Zagreb-K-Banhatti index of a graph

Department of Mathematics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga – 585 106 (India)
Department of Mathematics, Bangalore University, Jnana Bharathi Campus, Bangalore -560 056 (India)


The Zagreb indices were introduced by Gutman and Trinajstic in 1972. The K-Banhatti indices were introduced by Kulli in 2016. These two types of indices are closely related. In this study, we define the Zagreb- K-Banhatti index of a graph. We establish some relations between Zagreb, K-Banhatti and Zagreb-K-Banhatti indices. We also obtain lower and upper bounds for the Zagreb -K-Banhatti index of a graph in terms of Zagreb and K- Banhatti indices.

KEYWORDS: Zagreb index, K- Banhatti indices, Zagreb-K-Banhatti index, 2010 (AMS) Mathematics Subject Classification: 05C05, 05C07, 05C35

Thermophysical aspects of nanofluids with carbon nanotubes suspensions-A Review

Department of Mathematics, Divine Degree College, Nayagarh, Odisha (India)
Department of Mathematics, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Odisha (India)


This article focuses on a comprehensive review in summarizing on the recent research developments regarding the theoretical and experimental investigations about the thermophysical characteristics of carbon nanotubes-nanofluids with mass concentration varying from 0.1 to 1wt% and at the temperatures of 10-60°C. Carbon nanotubes are promising new materials for their mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical and surface properties. The current study explores how several factors those strongly affecting thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat and density of carbon nanotube-nanofluids include particle concentration, temperature, particle size, particle type, particle shape, different base fluids, surfactant and ultrasonic time. In addition, different apposite models contributing augmentation of thermal conductivity and decaying of viscosity of carbon nanotubes-nanofluids are introduced. Further, significant heat transfer mechanisms namely Brownian motion, nanoclustering, thermophoresis, and interfacial nano-layer responsible for significant role in augmenting the heat transfer capabilities of carbon nanotubes-nanofluids are well discussed. The viscosity of SWCNT nanofluids shows a non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior due to the alignment of nanotubes clusters and agglomerates with increasing shear rate. The results reveal that the thermal conductivity, viscosity and density of CNT-nanofluids are higher than that of the base fluid, and enhances with rise in nanotubes concentration. Specific heat peters out with rise in particle loadings and upgrades with increase in temperature. Thermal conductivity of CNT-nanofluids upsurges, whereas the viscosity and density of CNT-nanofluids diminish with rise in the temperature. Finally, the challenges for the future are conveyed.

KEYWORDS: Carbon Nanotubes Nanofluids, Nanoclustering, Interfacial nano-layer