Abstract of Volume 21(1), 2009


Copper, Mercury and Chromium Levels in some Commercial Fish Species from Red Sea "Shoggig Coast" Jazzan South of Saudi Arabia
Ibrahim N. Al-Suwiti
Abstract : A studies of the accumulation of Copper, Mercury, Chromium was carried out in the liver and gill of three species Epinephelus chdostigma, Plectropomus maculates and Scarus chobban collected from Red sea Shogagi coast at different sites. The concentration of Copper, Mercury and Chromium were found to follow the order liver > gill. The influence of fish body, length and type on the metals accumulation in the tested fishes organ was critically investigated. The detected metal level were generally similar to Arabian Gulf fishes "pervious studies". The studies concludes that the marine fish from Red sea are clean and do not constitute a risk from human health.

Keywords : Red Sea, Copper, Mercury, Chromium, Tissue, Fish.

Polymetallic complexes part lxxxxvii di and tetrameric complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) with bis-bidentate and bis-tetradentate azodye ligands
Abstract : Twelve dimeric and tetrameric complexes of CoII, NiII, CuII, ZnII, CdII and HgII with one bis-bidentate ligand (LH3) and bis-tetradentate azodye ligand (L'H6) have been synthesized. The complexes have been characterized by analytical, conductance, magnetic susceptibility, IR, electronic spectra, NMR and ESR data. The cobalt (II) and nickel (II) complexes are found to be octahedral, copper (II) complexes are distorted octahedral and a tetrahedral stereochemistry has been assigned to Zn (II), Cd (II) and Hg (II) complexes.

Key words : Polymetallic Complexes, Azodye complexes, multidentate ligands.

Microwave Firing for Synthesis of Nanosized Magnesium Ferrite
A.M. Bhavikattia*, Subhash Kulkarnib & Arunkumar Lagashetty
Abstract : Synthesis of nano sized spinal ferrite materials has become an important part of modern ceramic research. Microwave route for synthesis of ferrites at nano dimension is a technology for ceramic manufacturing, which integrates the synthetic technology for information storage materials. Number of synthetic methods is in the literature, out of these, microwave firing could be an interesting because of its simplicity, eco-friendly and less time consuming. This microwave firing is used for synthesis of magnesium ferrite materials. Nanosized MgFe2O4 is synthesized by microwave route using urea as a fuel. Magnesium oxalates and iron oxalates were prepared by dissolving magnesium and iron salt in oxalic acid solution. These two oxalates with urea are irradiated with microwaves using urea as a fuel to get cubic MgFe2O4 nanoparticles. The structure of the prepared nano ferrite is studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. This study shows that the formation of crystalline cubic structure. Morphology of magnesium ferrite is viewed by Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) tool. This SEM image shows spherical particles with compact and globular arrangement. Infrared spectroscopic technique is used to know the bonding in the ferrite sample. Metal-Oxygen (Mg-O & Fe-O) and metal-metal (Mg-Fe) bonding is observed in the spectrum.

Key words : Microwave synthesis, MgFe2O4, Oxalate, nanoparticles.

Effect of overtaking distrubances on converging strong spherical shock waves in a rotating dusty gas
R.P. Yadav, Dal Chand* and Manoj Yadav*
Abstract : In the present paper effect of overtaking disturbances on the freely propagation of converging strong spherical shock through a rotating dusty gas is studied by a technique developed by Yadav16. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of a perfect gas and small solid particles. Assuming an initial density distribution law as r0=rcr-a, where rc is the density at the axis of symmetry and a a positive constant, the analytical relations for flow variables modified by overtaking disturbances are obtained. The variations of flow variables with (i) propagation distance, (ii) mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture, (iii) specific density G and (iv) angular velocity W, are obtained. The results obtained here are also compared with those for a freely propagating shock.

Keywords : Converging shock waves, dusty gas, rotation.

Arsenic and Cadmium Levels in some Commercial Fish Species Collected from Red Sea "Shoggaig Coast" Jazzan South of Saudi Arabia
Ibrahim N. Al-Suwiti
Abstract : Cadmium and Arsenic were assessed in some organs (gill and liver) of three species Epinephelus chdostigma, Plectropomus maculates, Scarus Chobban collected from Red sea. The present results showed that the high concentration in all organs of all fishes were found in cadmium than those of Arsenic. These results indicate that the analysis of Cd and As in different organs might be a useful as bioindicator for trace metals pollution in sea water due to their ability to rapidly accumulation and retain them in their tissues for long period of time.

Key words : Red Sea, Cadmium, Arsenic, Tissue.

IPI2Win Software usage for the interpretation of sub-surface water in Sirukattur Village, Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu (India)
B. Gurugnanam1, M. Suresh1, K. Manokaran1, S. Vasudevan2 and S. Kumaravel
Abstract : The present work is aimed to study the shallow fresh Water aquifer in sedimentary area. 3 vertical electrical soundings (VES) were carried out in the study area using Schlumberger method. CRM 500 instrument was used in the present study. The field data were interpreted by IPI2WIN software. Using the interpreted sounding results the best location (VES 1) of the 3 test locations. The test data interpretation was validated in bore well drilled at the recommended site. The results obtained from IPI2Win software was found to be 100 % correct in the field check. The top shallow aquifers are commonly fresh in nature in the study area. 18 m depth bore hole was drilled and samples were collected at 1 m interval. The observed subsurface details are 1-2 m (Clay mixed sand), 2-4 m (Medium to coarse sand), 5-8 m (Coarse sand), 8-9 m (Sandstone), 9-10 m (Coarse Sand), 10-17 (Medium Sand), 17-18 m (Sandstone). The study reveals that the top shallow aquifers are noticed from5 m to 17 m with good groundwater potential. It is thus established that the IPI2Win software interpretation is reliable in sedimentary area.

Key words: VES (Vertical Electrical Sounding) Survey; Aquifer. Groundwater potential.

Critical Appraisal of Combined Environmental Impacts Assessment of Major Water Resources Projects of M.P. (India)
1Rajnish Shrivastava and 1Narendra Dave
Abstract : This is a combined critical appraisal of Environment Impacts Assessment study of Major Water Resource Projects lying in three river basins (Betwa, Narmada,Yamuna) of M.P. The paper critically reviews "the Environmental, Economic and Ecological status with development scenario before and after the completion of these projects". The physical benefits anticipated in the project report are compared with the actual benefits achieved with respect to Rain fall, ground water status, flora-fauna, aqua fauna, water quality, rehabilitation of affected people, submergence of land, water logging, crop production and, fish production. The after effects of irrigation works & developments have also been analyzed. Thus the paper presents the real life case study of existing water resources projects. The agriculture production, land irrigation, green cover strategy, weather phenomena have also been analysed. The over all impacts of the command area before and after the construction of these projects have been critically and objectively analyzed. This paper will be a useful thread for establishing a comprehensive connectivity through overall assessment of positive and negative impacts of the water resources projects.

GIScience in Exploring Groundwater Studies at Upper Thirumanimuthar Sub-Basin, Cauvery River, Tamilnadu, India
M. Suresh1, B.Gurugnanam1, S.Vasudevan2, D. Ramesh3 and S.V. Lingeswara Rao4
Abstract : GIS is a powerful tools in analysing the multiple thematic maps at a time. GIS analysis is carried out in the present study to locate favorable groundwater potential zones. To do this subsurface investigation and its interpretation were carried out through geophysical survey. Forty seven vertical electrical soundings (VES) survey were carried out in the study area. The field data were interpreted by curve matching techniques and RESIST software is used to determine the resistivity and thickness of the different layers. By using conventional GIS method, the spatial distribution maps for weathered zone resistivity and its thickness were prepared. Integration of the said themes was done it in GIS. The out put combinations are 4 of Excellent, Very good, Good and Medium groundwater potential zones were derived, and it is designated as output map-1 (groundwater potential zone map). This map was superposed over groundwater fluctuation map. The derived final result map designated as suitable sites for artificial recharge area. From the final out put area as Excellent, Very good, Good and Medium zones were recommended of this locations suitable sites for artificial recharge structures will be constructed. Other aquifer properties, coefficient of anisotropy varies from 1.02 to 2.40 and longitudinal conductance varies from 0.07 to 0.5 mhos. These values indicate the hardness and compaction of rocks. It is evidenced by low permeability and porosity of the study area.

Key words : GIS (Geographic information system); VES (Vertical Electrical Sounding; Coefficient; Anisotropy;

Variability of Surface Albedo with Soil Moisture and Soil Temperature at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram
Abstract : Using the experimental data recorded by hydro meteorological data acquisition system installed at observatory Thiruvananthapuram (76° 59' E longitude and 8° 30' N latitude) in south Kerala, a study was conducted to capture the effects of soil moisture and soil temperature conditions on surface albedo. The variation of surface albedo with soil temperature and soil moisture on wet and dry days is studied. It was found that surface albedo decreases with increasing soil moisture content. On wet days the high moisture content allows more solar radiations to be used for evaporating water. Hence the less reflected solar radiation reduces the albedo. The reverse is the case on dry days.

Key words : Surface Albedo, Soil Temperature, Soil Moisture

Thermal study of some schiff bases of p-aminophenol
Shipra Baluja, K.P. Vaishnani and Nikunj Kachhadia
Abstract : Thermal analysis of some Schiff bases derived from p-amino phenol, have been carried out by DSC, TG and DTA techniques. TG data of decomposition have been analyzed for the kinetic parameters using Freeman-Carroll method. From the observed curves, various kinetic parameters such as order of degradation (n), energy of activation (E), frequency factor (A) and entropy change (DS) have been evaluated. Further, thermal stability of Schiff bases have been determined which is found to depend on the type of substituent present in the compounds.

Briggs' plumerise equation-A study
M.S. Rudresha1, Jeevan Kumar2 and K.V.S.G. Rao3
Abstract : The Briggs plume rise equations arise in the study of 'Atmospheric dispersion modeling'. The widely used equations studied in the model suggest that the Briggs' equations proposed for bent-over, hot buoyant plumes are the only relevant ones in general. Such models are important to governmental agencies tasked with protecting and managing the ambient air quality the models are typically employed to determine whether existing or proposed new industrial facilities are or will be in compliance with national ambient air quality standards. The models also serve to assist in the design of effective control strategies to reduce emissions of harmful air pollutants.

Key words : Atmospheric dispersion modeling, Plume rise, Air pollutants

A note on second order slope rotatable designs using symmetrical unequal block arrangements with two unequal block sizes
B.Re. Victorbabu1, Ch. Sateesh1 and R. Abbaiah
Abstract : In this paper, a new method of construction of second order slope rotatable designs using symmetrical unequal block arrangements with two unequal block sizes is studied and constructed for 6 £ v £ 16 (v: the number of factors).

Key words : Response surface designs, Second order slope rotatable designs.

A Multi-criteria approach for the selection and grading of adsorbent materials for the removal of oil from spent cutting fluids
Abstract : Safe disposal of Spent Cutting Fluids (SCFs) generated by their use metal process industries, is a serious problem. The high cost ultra-filtration method employed for the treatment of SCFs have made it mandatory to further modify the existing techniques so as to control the cost of waste disposal to the environment. The authors have proposed the use of agro-waste products i.e., rice husk, bagasse, saw-dust and arhar stem (cajanus cazan) as adsorbents for removal of oil from SCF before they are finally disposed off into the environment. But it is very difficult to grade and select the best adsorbent without extensive experimental investigation. The utility of a multicriteria decision-making technique, called the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), is explored in this study to select an appropriate adsorbent that satisfies the needs of the process. This paper presents the results of AHP for the selection and grading of adsorbents to be employed for the processing of SCFs.

Key words : Adsorbent, Spent cutting fluid, AHP, Adsorption.

Role of frequency in studying intermolecular interactions in a binary mixture of industrial importance liquid
Ganeswar Nath and 2Rita Paikaray
Abstract : The acoustical parameters for binary mixture of two industrial importance liquid namely di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and xylene ( mixed isomer) has been studied at three different frequencies ( 1MHz, 3MHz and 5MHz) and at constant temperature 303K. The measured data of density (r) and ultrasonic velocity (C) in binary mixture of DIPE and xylene are used to compute isentropic compressibility (b), intermolecular free length (Lf) and acoustic impendence (Z) and their excess values from view point of the importance and applicability in asserting the interactions. In this binary system, the interaction parameter values have been found to be positive and their excess values are negative over entire composition range of DIPE which indicates the specific interactions between unlike molecule. With increase of frequency the extent of interaction becomes weak due to the thermal relaxation of the component molecules.

Key words : Binary mixture, intermolecular free length, isentropic compressibility acoustic impendence.

Amido black 10 B is preferable to Ponceau S stain for staining Serum proteins in Electrophoretic studies for clinical diagnosis
Abstract : Differentiation of serum proteins by electrophoresis is important for the diagnosis and prognosis of numerous diseases. Use of serum protein electrophoresis is a common tool in clinical diagnosis to express the various infectious states. Staining of serum proteins in electrophoresis is really an uphill task to define accurate abnormal proteins. Many stains have high sensitivity but it cannot be affordable in common laboratories. Hence, the objective of this comparative study is to establish a standard staining protocol with an appropriate stain with affordable cost and high sensitivity. Amido black is one among the best stains used in older protocols. Due to the influx of new sensitive stains like Ponceau S the use of Amido black has become very less. In our experience, we found Amido black as a better stain in comparison to Ponceau S after many replicates of the experiment.

Key words : Electrophoretic studies, Amido black Vs Ponceau S stain, Serum protein staining

Heat and mass transfer effects on mhd free convection flow of an incompressible viscous dissipative fluid past an oscillating plate embedded in porous medium
M. Sivaiah*, A.S. Nagarajan** and P. Sreehari reddy***
Abstract : The unsteady transient free convection flow of incompressible dissipative fluid past an infinite vertical oscillating plate through porous medium is considered taking account of viscous dissipative heat under the influence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. The governing equations are solved by finite difference method. The results are obtained for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. The effects of various parameters are discussed on flow variables and presented by graphs.

Key words : Transient MHD free convection flow, dissipative fluid, mass transfer, oscillating plate, porous medium, finite difference method

Qualitative Analysis of Two Distinct Wide Band Triple Darlington Amplifiers
Satyendra Nath Tiwari, Beena Pandey and SachchidaNand Shukla
Abstract : Two distinct Modifications are proposed in the conventional circuit of Triple Darlington amplifier by adding an extra biasing resistance RD. First amplifier completely removes the problem of poor response of Triple Darlington at higher frequencies as well as provides wide band frequency response for small signals. While, the second amplifier effectively widens the frequency band. Hence the proposed small signal amplifiers can be significantly used in various commercial electronics and communication circuits.

Key words : Small Signal amplifiers, Darlington amplifiers, Electronic Circuit Simulation.

The Effect of Sublethal concentration of Cadmium Chloride on the Alkaline Phosphatase and Protein in Gills and Muscle of Oreochromis niloticus Collected from Wadi Hanifa Stream Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Ibrahim N. Al-Suwiti
Abstract : The freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus, were exposed to cadmium for 18 days Alkaline phosphates and protein in gills and muscle were measured. The activity of (ALP) increased significantly in treated tissue compared with those of control, but the activity of protein is significantly decrease with those of control. These results revealed that cadmium effect the metabolism of O. niloticus and the enzyme (ALP) can work as good biomarker of contamination.

Key words : Cadmium chloride, Alkaline phosphatase, (ALP), Protein, O. niloticus.

Phytochemical analysis of essential minerals in medicinal plants
Abstract : Trace elements are called the spark plugs of life because they are required to activate hundreds of enzymes reaction with in the body. The objective of this study was to determine micronutrient content (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn) in O. gratissimum, O. americanum, M. spicata and A. indica by Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). All medicinal plants are now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases. Essential micronutrient in O. gratissimum is Fe (59)µg/g, Cu (29) µg/g, Zn (55) µg/g, Mn (9) µg/g, in O. americanum Fe (120) µg/g, Cu (56) µg/g, Zn (88) µg/g, Mn (21) µg/g, in M. spicata. Fe (92) µg/g, Zn (122) µg/g, Cu (125) µg/g, Mn (31) µg/g & in A. indica Cu (49) µg/g, Fe (158) µg/g, Zn (64) µg/g, Mn (18) µg/g.

Key word : O. gratissimum, O. americanum, M. spicata A. indica AAS, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn.

Effects of Arsenic exposure in rats on the blood chemistry of serum and histopathology of liver
Abstract : Arsenic poisoning is caused by its exposure via drinking water and is considered as a worldwide problem. Exposure to arsenic has been linked with a myriad of possible health effects. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate alterations in the blood serum indexes and histological changes in liver of male rats exposed to arsenic (50ppm) in their drinking water for eight weeks. Blood was collected for serum analysis of various indexes and the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation for the collection of their liver for histopathological studies. Almost all the serum indexes analyzed in the present study were altered significantly in the arsenic exposed animals. The damage in liver tissue was prominent and degenerative and necrotic changes were observed in almost every area of the tissue. The blood indexes studied herein may serve as potential biomarkers for arsenic induced hepatotoxicosis that may affect the general health of the animals. A well planed data base of regularly updated arsenic level of different areas of Saudi Arabia would help in processing the water and provide As free water for consumption and avoiding deleterious effects of As exposure through drinking water.

Key words: sodium arsenite, rats, toxicity, blood serum indexes, hepatotoxicity, liver histopathology.

Essential Oil of Kaffir Lime in System of H2O/Tween 80/Hexane
S.H. Doreen Ng, C. R. Laili, S. Hamdan and M. Habsah
Abstract : A preliminary investigation on the association behaviour of polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan mono-oleate (Tween 80) in water and hexane was carried out at 30°C by constructing the phase equilibrium. The phases were separated by centrifugation. The birefringence was observed under cross polarizer and their consistency, texture and optical pattern were examined under polarizing microscope. From the phase equilibrium, several compositions were then selected to formulate O/W emulsions. Essential oil extracted from Kaffir lime was then incorporated into the emulsions to investigate their stability. Results showed that Tween 80 was readily solubilised in the mixture of water and hexane by forming association structures such as micro-emulsion and liquid crystalline phases. From the stability test, it was observed that the emulsions, where the compositions of water, hexane and Tween 80 that passed through the liquid crystalline region, were more stable.

Key words: Emulsion, Essential Oil. Phase Equilibrium, Liquid Crystalline.

An Analysis of Capillary Tissue Exchange System-Fluid Exchange
Rashi Bhardwaj and P. N. Tandon*
Abstract : This paper presents an analysis of capillary-tissue exchange system, representing blood by Casson fluid model flowing through a capillary of diameter 5 to 10 times larger than the red blood cells and the suspending medium plasma freely takes part in the exchange processes with surrounding tissue. Governing equations for continuity and momentum have been solved in the two regions (capillary and tissue) for fluid transport in capillary and the tissue subject to boundary and matching conditions at the capillary-tissue interface. The tissue has been identified as porous matrix following Darcy's law. Results for velocity profiles, pressure distributions in the two regions, wall shear stress and fluid flux at the interface have been represented through graphs and discussed. It has been noted that the capillary-tissue fluid exchange plays an important role in oxygen and nutritional transport to the tissue cells. Analysis oxygen transport is being presented in the next paper.

Center of concentration-introduction of novel concept and its study
M.S. Rudresha1, R. Jeevan Kumar2 and K.V.S.G. Rao
Abstract : This work introduces a novel concept entitled "Center of concentration" which is similar to concepts in physics such as 'Center of gravity', and 'Center of mass'. It helps in a better understanding of the concentration of emissions from an assortment of stacks of varying heights and different pollutant emissions. Gaussian plume Dispersion Model is used in the study comprising of various Atmospheric stability Classes each of which representing a measure of turbulence in the ambient atmosphere. The effect of wind velocity is also studied. The proposed model helps in protecting and managing ambient air quality.

Key words: Atmospheric dispersion modeling, Gaussian plume, diffusion, center of concentration, mathematical simulation, ambient air quality.

Assessment of groundwater quality in a suburban area of Chennai city, India
Ravichandran K.1 and Jayaprakash M.
Abstract : Hydrochemical investigations were carried out in and around Ambattur industrial area, Tamilnadu, India to assess the chemical composition of groundwater and its quality for drinking purpose. A total of 54 representative groundwater samples were collected from different wells to monitor the water chemistry of various ions. The type of water that predominated in the study area was assessed based on hydrochemical facies. Interpretation of analytical data shows that Na-Cl, Ca-Cl and mixed are the dominant hydrochemical facies in the study area. Alkali metals (Na+, K+ ) and strong acids (Cl- , SO42-) are dominating over alkaline earths (Ca2+, Mg2+) and weak acids (HCO3-, CO32-). The mean concentration of the cations is in the order of Na+> Ca2+> Mg2+ >K+, while that for anions is Cl- > HCO3- >SO42-> NO3-. Statistical analyses indicate the highest positive correlation between EC and Cl with correlation coefficient of 0.97. Progressive reduction in correlation coefficient for EC with Na, TH and Mg are observed as 0.87, 0.84 and 0.77 respectively. Groundwater in the study area is generally hard, fresh to brackish and low in alkaline nature. The unsuitability of groundwater for drinking was identified in few places due to high total hardness and TDS. Fluoride is within permissible limit for human consumption as per international standards.

Key words: Hydrochemistry. Drinking water quality. Ambattur. India

A High Performance Low Voltage Level Shifted Cascode Current Mirror
Ganga Ram Mishra and Raj Kumar Tiwari
Abstract : The current mirror is one of the basic building block in analog and mixed signal processing circuits. For high performance analog circuit applications the accuracy and output impedance are the most important parameters to determine the performance of the current mirror. This paper presents a new topology for a simple high performance current mirror for low voltage applications with high output impedance and large dynamic range. This topology is simulated in SPICE simulator for 0.13 micron CMOS technology.

Key words: Current Mirrors, Cascode Structure, Level Shift Current Source/Sink.

Influence of fracture parameters on concrete based on size effect phenomenon
Abstract : Concrete is being extensively used in the construction industry. Though concrete has many advantages, it is brittle and therefore, a cause of concern in structures. Fracture is a problem that society has faced ever since the application of engineering techniques to structures. Recent advances in material technology further added more complexity to the problem. The behaviour of concrete can be understood by studying its fracture properties including crack propagation, size effect, work of fracture, Fracture energy (GF) etc. Concepts of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) have been used to study the size effects of concrete. In this study, size effect law is presented. The fracture energy was predicted using Size effect law and Reunion Internationale des Laboratories et Experts des Materiaux, Systemes de construction et ourvrages (RILEM) recommendations on three-point bend (TPB) specimen. Size effect on the Strength of concrete beam has been observed. The parameter characteristic length (Lch) was obtained along with GF.

Structural and Physical studies of naturally occurring chalcopyrite in Central India
Abstract : The present study focus on the structural and physical studies of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) samples in Laboratory. The sample has been characterized by X-ray diffraction technique and revealed that the sample is possesses tetragonal crystal structure with chalcopyrite structure and preferred orientation along (112) plane with the space group I 4 2d and point group 4 2m. The value of lattice parameter a and c for the sample is found to be 5.293 ºA and 10.423 ºA respectively. The d.c. electrical resistivity measurement have been carried out over temperature range of 300° to 800°K. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity exhibited two activation energies. The magnetic susceptibility value is found to be 41.75 x 10-8m3kg-1 (S.I.unit). These values are compared with the standard data and showed that the sample is having tetragonal system structure, semiconductor behavior and paramagnetic which become ferromagnetic after applied external field.

Key words: Electrical resistivity, chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), magnetic, mineral.

Performance Evaluation of a Shaping Mill System
V. K. Pathak and 2B.L. Dewangan
Abstract : This paper deals with the performance evaluation of a Shaping mill system involving four essential components viz. one main unit, two associate units and one independent unit. Only one repairman is used for repairing the failed components of all the units. Taking failure rates as exponential and arbitrary repair rates, various system effectiveness measures such as transition probabilities, mean time to system failure, availability, busy period of repairman are calculated. At last profit analysis is done on the basis of above measures.

Bond ionicity and electronic polarizability of AII BIV C2V ternary Chalcopyrite semiconductors using Phillips and Van-Vechten theory
Dheerendra Singh Yadav and Dharmveer Singh
Abstract : Using Phillips and Van-Vechten (PVV) theory1-3, the values of homopolar gap, ionic gap and Penn gap have been evaluated for A-C and B-C bonds in AIIBIVC2V ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors. Using the above parameters, the bond ionicity ( fi ) has been determined. The values obtained are in good agreement with the literature value. The electronic polarizabilities have also been evaluated using the Clausius-Mossotti relation. The values are in good agreement with the ordinary sums of the polarizabilities of individual bonds.

Key words: ABC2 Chalcopyrite Semiconductor Compounds, Bond ionicity; PACS Nos. 70; 78.15.Ci;

Energy consideration in shock waves moving in rotating atmosphere
R.P. Yadav, Darshan Dev and Vinod Kumar*
Abstract : Adiabatic and isothermal propagations of spherical shock waves produced due to a nuclear explosion have been studied using the energy hypothesis of Thomas in the nonuniform atmosophere of the earth. The explosion is considered at different height, is calculated shock strength and shock velocity for adiabatic and isothermal flow. It has been found that shock strength and shock velocity in isothermal flow is smaller in comparison to adiabatic flow. It has been also found that the energy of shock waves in adiabatic flow is larger than isothermal flow. The effect angular velocity of rotation on the shock velocity and shock strength is also discussed.

Key words: Spherical shock waves, adiabatic, isothermal, explosion, energy consideration.

An emphasis on the validity of free electron approximation in thermopowers in metals
S. R. Pandit, *K.K.Mandal* and S.S. Singh**
Abstract : The study of thermopowers in metal has been the field of interest for the scientists since long. Mostly the convensional method for investigating the problem for thermopowers in metals are used. The presence of electric field alone the conductor results the electric current and the ratio of the current density to the electric field applied, in the absence of temperature gradient, defines the electrical conductivity of the metals considered. The presence of temperature gradient alone gives rise to the flow of heat. Further the discovery of electro-magnetic induction by Faraday suppressed the phenomena of thermoelectricity. The observed features of thermoelectric properties, reported in literature are very much complicated and anomalous. The standard theory generally fails to interpret them. These interpretations are also anomalous because they have no correlation among themselves. Moreover, they are unable to co-ordinate anomalous behaviors of other transport properties. In the present communication, an emphasis on the validity of free electron approximation in thermopowers in metals has been focused. The study also gives the qualitative picture of the various phenomenological behavior of free electron approximation in thermopowers in metal from thermo e.m.f.

Key words : Interpretation, phenomenological behaviour, qualitative picture, anomalies, irreversible theory,

Quantum estimation of conjectures of Bohr and Von Neumann probability Distributors on operator theory
S. R. Pandit and S. K. Yadav*
Abstract : The probabilistic interpretation was developed by Bohr3 and others12-15 by using operator formation. Von Neumann's16 logical structure of quantum mechanics is extended to statistical theory of quantum mechanics. In quantum mechanics, the elementary of the observed object is the property which does not allow to neglect the influence of the measuring devices. The fruitfulness of the deterministic point of view in the classical mechanics give rise to the illusion of its universally observed facts12. However with the penetration of experimental physics into the atomic domain the inapplicability of the classical approach and the relevance of the statistical concepts in this domain became more evident. The behavior of the atomic and subatomic objects is essentially probabilistic. A quantum version of entropy has been developed by Von Neumann16. In the present study, we have examined the conjectures of Bohr3 and Von Neumann16 using the theory of harilially ordered vector spaces. Mackey12 and Lolmogorov11 developed axiomatic approach related to probability distri-butions and operator theory in Hilbert7 spaces. Von-Neumann16 derived some significant results on quantum logic approach to the foundations of quantum theory.

Key words : Probabilistic formulation, interpretation, axiomatic structure, commutative analog, significant.

D.C. Electric Field Mill for Measuring Vertical Potential Gradient of Atmosphere
Abstract : The design, fabrication and calibration of a d.c. electric field mill to measure electrostatic field of disturbed weather conditions of the atmosphere has been described. The electrical noise and complexity have been reduced by introducing the penchart recorder directly through a Teflon coated coaxial cable in place of pushpull d.c. amplifier, potentiometer and a galvanometer as used by Gunn3. Provision has been made for selecting the desired sensitivity of the electric field meter. The electric field mill provides a reliable output even in periods of severe conditions of the atmosphere.

A brief study on convensional method for the determination of thetmopowers of metals from thermo E.M.F.
S. R. Pandit, S. K. Yadav* and K.K. Mandal**
Abstract : In common practice thermopowers of metals or conductors are determined from thermo e.m.f. of the thermocouples. In the conventional method, reported in the literature [I.C.T.9, Barnard1], thermopower of the thermocouple is obtained from the temperature derivative of thermo e.m.f. Thermopowers of individual metals are obtained by using thermopowers of the reference metals3. Previous method as well as thermopowers of reference metals have the vital role8 in the determination of thermopowers of the test metals. Some points in favour of the need of test of these factors are essential. Moveover, there is a poor agreement between theory and experiment of thermopowers of metals. Either values of thermopowers of a metal reported by two authors or valves obtained with respect to two reference metals or valves of thermopowers of two sample of a metal, hardly agree with each other [I.C.T.9, Seitz13, Wilson15, Barnard1, MacDonal11].

In the present communication we are going to discuss the complicated anomalies, we also test the conventional method for determination of thermo-powers of metals form thermo e.m.f. and accuracy of thermopowers of some reference metals reported in the literature3 and determine the thermopowers of lead. Thermopower of the most popular reference metal7 has also been suggested.

Key words : Reference metal, thermopower, Conventional method, Interpretation, Irreversible theory.

A study of hypertension and diabetes on logistic regression model
Nor Azlida Aleng1, Wan Muhamad Amir W. Ahmad2, Nyi Nyi Naing3, and Zalila Binti Ali4
Abstract : This paper focuses on the study of hypertension and status through the logistics regresson models. We are using the data from the Unit of Record, University Science Malaysia Hospital (HUSM). We also provide some numerical results of the statistical calculation. The finding of estimate risk will be used to educate the people consciousness about the dangerous of high blood pressure.

Key words: Risk estimation, Logistics regression and High blood Pressure.